Document


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
 
FORM 10-Q
 
 
 
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2019
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 001-32686
 
 
 
 
VIACOM INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DELAWARE
20-3515052
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
 
 
 
1515 Broadway
New York, NY 10036
(212) 258-6000
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x    Accelerated filer ¨    Non-accelerated filer ¨    Smaller reporting company ¨    Emerging growth company ¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes ¨    No x
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbols
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
VIA
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Class B common stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
VIAB
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
The number of Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share outstanding at April 30, 2019 was 49,430,635. The number of Class B common stock, par value $0.001 per share outstanding at April 30, 2019 was 353,644,397.
 


Table of Contents

VIACOM INC.
INDEX TO FORM 10-Q
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Earnings for the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2019 and September 30, 2018
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018
 
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018
 
 
 
 


Table of Contents

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).
VIACOM INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
(Unaudited)
 
  
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
(in millions, except per share amounts)
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues
$
2,958

 
$
3,148

 
$
6,048

 
$
6,221

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating
1,524

 
1,681

 
3,207

 
3,244

Selling, general and administrative
743

 
771

 
1,427

 
1,510

Depreciation and amortization
54

 
55

 
104

 
108

Restructuring and related costs
24

 
185

 
95

 
185

Legal settlement
40

 

 
40

 

Total expenses
2,385

 
2,692

 
4,873

 
5,047

Operating income
573

 
456

 
1,175

 
1,174

Interest expense, net
(118
)
 
(143
)
 
(245
)
 
(290
)
Equity in net earnings of investee companies

 
2

 
1

 
3

Gain/(loss) on marketable securities
38

 

 
(8
)
 

Gain on extinguishment of debt

 

 
18

 
25

Other items, net
(5
)
 
(28
)
 
(12
)
 
(32
)
Earnings from continuing operations before provision for income taxes
488

 
287

 
929

 
880

Provision for income taxes
(120
)
 
(23
)
 
(230
)
 
(65
)
Net earnings from continuing operations
368

 
264

 
699

 
815

Discontinued operations, net of tax
13

 
10

 
16

 
12

Net earnings (Viacom and noncontrolling interests)
381

 
274

 
715

 
827

Net earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
(5
)
 
(8
)
 
(18
)
 
(24
)
Net earnings attributable to Viacom
$
376

 
$
266

 
$
697

 
$
803

Amounts attributable to Viacom:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings from continuing operations
$
363

 
$
256

 
$
681

 
$
791

Discontinued operations, net of tax
13

 
10

 
16

 
12

Net earnings attributable to Viacom
$
376

 
$
266

 
$
697

 
$
803

Basic earnings per share attributable to Viacom:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.90

 
$
0.64

 
$
1.69

 
$
1.97

Discontinued operations
0.03

 
0.02

 
0.04

 
0.03

Net earnings
$
0.93

 
$
0.66

 
$
1.73

 
$
2.00

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Viacom:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.90

 
$
0.64

 
$
1.69

 
$
1.96

Discontinued operations
0.03

 
0.02

 
0.04

 
0.03

Net earnings
$
0.93

 
$
0.66

 
$
1.73

 
$
1.99

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
403.3

 
402.6

 
403.2

 
402.5

Diluted
403.7

 
402.9

 
403.6

 
402.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

1

Table of Contents

VIACOM INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
  
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
(in millions)
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Net earnings (Viacom and noncontrolling interests)
$
381

 
$
274

 
$
715

 
$
827

Other comprehensive income/(loss), net of tax:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
12

 
44

 
(42
)
 
53

Defined benefit pension plans

 
1

 
1

 
3

Cash flow hedges
2

 
(1
)
 
4

 

Available-for-sale securities

 
(17
)
 

 
13

Other comprehensive income/(loss) (Viacom and noncontrolling interests)
14

 
27

 
(37
)
 
69

Comprehensive income
395

 
301

 
678

 
896

Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interest
8

 
8

 
18

 
24

Comprehensive income attributable to Viacom
$
387

 
$
293

 
$
660

 
$
872

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

2

Table of Contents

VIACOM INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)

(in millions, except par value)
March 31,
2019
 
September 30,
2018
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
486

 
$
1,557

Receivables, net
3,088

 
3,141

Inventory, net
855

 
896

Prepaid and other assets
571

 
482

Total current assets
5,000

 
6,076

Property and equipment, net
895

 
919

Inventory, net
3,919

 
3,848

Goodwill
11,888

 
11,609

Intangibles, net
341

 
313

Other assets
1,050

 
1,018

Total assets
$
23,093

 
$
23,783

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
394

 
$
433

Accrued expenses
772

 
848

Participants’ share and residuals
729

 
719

Program obligations
732

 
662

Deferred revenue
464

 
398

Current portion of debt
322

 
567

Other liabilities
459

 
427

Total current liabilities
3,872

 
4,054

Noncurrent portion of debt
8,637

 
9,515

Participants’ share and residuals
415

 
523

Program obligations
380

 
498

Deferred tax liabilities, net
319

 
296

Other liabilities
1,192

 
1,186

Redeemable noncontrolling interest
253

 
246

Commitments and contingencies (Note 7)


 


Viacom stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Class A common stock, par value $0.001, 375.0 authorized; 49.4 and 49.4 outstanding, respectively

 

Class B common stock, par value $0.001, 5,000.0 authorized; 353.9 and 353.7 outstanding, respectively

 

Additional paid-in capital
10,161

 
10,145

Treasury stock, 392.8 and 393.1 common shares held in treasury, respectively
(20,554
)
 
(20,562
)
Retained earnings
19,197

 
18,561

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(828
)
 
(737
)
Total Viacom stockholders’ equity
7,976

 
7,407

Noncontrolling interests
49

 
58

Total equity
8,025

 
7,465

Total liabilities and equity
$
23,093

 
$
23,783

 
 
 
 
 See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

3

Table of Contents

VIACOM INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)

  
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
(in millions)
2019
 
2018
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
 
 
 
Net earnings (Viacom and noncontrolling interests)
$
715

 
$
827

Discontinued operations, net of tax
(16
)
 
(12
)
Net earnings from continuing operations
699

 
815

Reconciling items:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
104

 
108

Feature film and program amortization
2,086

 
2,245

Equity-based compensation
26

 
35

Deferred income taxes
22

 
(11
)
Loss on marketable securities
8

 

Operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:
 
 
 
Receivables
110

 
(56
)
Production and programming
(2,155
)
 
(2,376
)
Accounts payable and other current liabilities
(188
)
 
(467
)
Other, net
7

 
6

Net cash provided by operating activities
719

 
299

 
 
 
 
INVESTING ACTIVITIES
 
 
 
Acquisitions and investments, net
(391
)
 
(71
)
Capital expenditures
(77
)
 
(64
)
Proceeds received from asset sales
5

 
44

Grantor trust proceeds
3

 
4

Net cash used in investing activities
(460
)
 
(87
)
 
 
 
 
FINANCING ACTIVITIES
 
 
 
Debt repayments
(1,100
)
 
(1,000
)
Dividends paid
(161
)
 
(161
)
Exercise of stock options

 
2

Other, net
(65
)
 
(53
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(1,326
)
 
(1,212
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
(4
)
 
28

Net change in cash and cash equivalents
(1,071
)
 
(972
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
1,557

 
1,389

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
486

 
$
417

 
 
 
 
 See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

4

Table of Contents

VIACOM INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited)
 
Quarter Ended 
 March 31, 2019
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Common
Stock
(shares)
 
Common
Stock/
Additional Paid-In Capital
 
Treasury
Stock
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Total Viacom
Stockholders’
Equity
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
Equity
December 31, 2018
403.1

 
$
10,154

 
$
(20,561
)
 
$
18,916

 
$
(839
)
 
$
7,670

 
$
54

 
$
7,724

Net earnings

 

 

 
376

 

 
376

 
5

 
381

Other comprehensive income, net of income tax expense of $0

 

 

 

 
11

 
11

 
3

 
14

Noncontrolling interests

 

 

 
(10
)
 

 
(10
)
 
(13
)
 
(23
)
Dividends declared ($0.20 per share for both Class A and B)

 

 

 
(82
)
 

 
(82
)
 

 
(82
)
Equity-based compensation and other
0.2

 
7

 
7

 
(3
)
 

 
11

 

 
11

March 31, 2019
403.3

 
$
10,161

 
$
(20,554
)
 
$
19,197

 
$
(828
)
 
$
7,976

 
$
49

 
$
8,025

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31, 2019
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Common
Stock
(shares)
 
Common
Stock/
Additional Paid-In Capital
 
Treasury
Stock
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Total Viacom
Stockholders’
Equity
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
Equity
September 30, 2018
403.1

 
$
10,145

 
$
(20,562
)
 
$
18,561

 
$
(737
)
 
$
7,407

 
$
58

 
$
7,465

Adoption of New Accounting Pronouncements(1)

 

 

 
113

 
(54
)
 
59

 

 
59

Adjusted beginning balance,
October 1, 2018
403.1

 
10,145

 
(20,562
)
 
18,674

 
(791
)
 
7,466

 
58

 
7,524

Net earnings

 

 

 
697

 

 
697

 
18

 
715

Other comprehensive loss, net of income tax expense of $1

 

 

 

 
(37
)
 
(37
)
 

 
(37
)
Noncontrolling interests

 

 

 
(9
)
 

 
(9
)
 
(27
)
 
(36
)
Dividends declared ($0.40 per share for both Class A and B)

 

 

 
(163
)
 

 
(163
)
 

 
(163
)
Equity-based compensation and other
0.2

 
16

 
8

 
(2
)
 

 
22

 

 
22

March 31, 2019
403.3

 
$
10,161

 
$
(20,554
)
 
$
19,197

 
$
(828
)
 
$
7,976

 
$
49

 
$
8,025

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) Represents the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers, Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-16 - Income Taxes: Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory and ASU 2016-01 - Financial Instruments - Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. See Note 1 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for details.

See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements


VIACOM INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(continued)
(Unaudited)
 
Quarter Ended 
 March 31, 2018
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Common
Stock
(shares)
 
Common
Stock/
Additional Paid-In Capital
 
Treasury
Stock
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Total Viacom
Stockholders’
Equity
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
Equity
December 31, 2017
402.5

 
$
10,129

 
$
(20,585
)
 
$
17,582

 
$
(576
)
 
$
6,550

 
$
81

 
$
6,631

Net earnings

 

 

 
266

 

 
266

 
8

 
274

Other comprehensive income, net of income tax benefit of $5

 

 

 

 
27

 
27

 

 
27

Noncontrolling interests

 

 

 
(5
)
 

 
(5
)
 
(15
)
 
(20
)
Dividends declared ($0.20 per share for both Class A and B)

 

 

 
(81
)
 

 
(81
)
 

 
(81
)
Equity-based compensation and other
0.1

 
18

 
5

 

 

 
23

 

 
23

March 31, 2018
402.6

 
$
10,147

 
$
(20,580
)
 
$
17,762

 
$
(549
)
 
$
6,780

 
$
74

 
$
6,854

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31, 2018
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Common
Stock
(shares)
 
Common
Stock/
Additional Paid-In Capital
 
Treasury
Stock
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
 
Total Viacom
Stockholders’
Equity
 
Noncontrolling
Interests
 
Total
Equity
September 30, 2017
402.4

 
$
10,119

 
$
(20,590
)
 
$
17,124

 
$
(618
)
 
$
6,035

 
$
84

 
$
6,119

Net earnings

 

 

 
803

 

 
803

 
24

 
827

Other comprehensive income, net of income tax expense of $13

 

 

 

 
69

 
69

 

 
69

Noncontrolling interests

 

 

 
(3
)
 

 
(3
)
 
(34
)
 
(37
)
Dividends declared ($0.40 per share for both Class A and B)

 

 

 
(162
)
 

 
(162
)
 

 
(162
)
Equity-based compensation and other
0.2

 
28

 
10

 

 

 
38

 

 
38

March 31, 2018
402.6

 
$
10,147

 
$
(20,580
)
 
$
17,762

 
$
(549
)
 
$
6,780

 
$
74

 
$
6,854

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See accompanying notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

5

Table of Contents
VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS




NOTE 1. BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Description of Business
Viacom creates entertainment experiences that drive conversation and culture around the world. Through television, film, digital media, live events, merchandise and solutions, our brands connect with diverse, young and young at heart audiences in more than 180 countries. Viacom operates through two reportable segments: Media Networks and Filmed Entertainment. The Media Networks segment provides entertainment content, services and related branded products for consumers in targeted demographics attractive to advertisers, content distributors and retailers through our global media brands including flagship brands Nickelodeon, MTV, BET, Comedy Central and Paramount Network. The Filmed Entertainment segment develops, produces, finances, acquires and distributes films, television programming and other entertainment content through its Paramount Pictures, Paramount Players, Paramount Animation and Paramount Television divisions, in various markets and media worldwide, for itself and for third parties. It partners on various projects with key Viacom brands, including Nickelodeon Movies, MTV Films and BET Films. References in this document to “Viacom,” “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” mean Viacom Inc. and our consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise.
Unaudited Interim Financial Statements
The accompanying unaudited consolidated quarterly financial statements have been prepared on a basis consistent with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and pursuant to the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of only normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair statement of our results of operations, financial position and cash flows for the periods presented. The results of operations for the periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2019 (“fiscal 2019”) or any future period. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with our Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2018, as filed with the SEC on November 16, 2018 (the “2018 Form 10-K”).
Use of Estimates
Preparing financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the dates presented and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include estimates of film ultimate revenues, product returns, potential outcome of uncertain tax positions, fair value of acquired assets and liabilities, fair value of equity-based compensation and pension benefit assumptions. Estimates are based on past experience and other considerations reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue when control of a good or service is transferred to a customer. We consider control to be transferred when the customer has the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits of that good or service. Significant judgments in the determination of the amount and timing of revenue from contracts with customers include the identification of distinct performance obligations in contracts containing bundled advertising sales and content licenses and the allocation of the consideration among individual performance obligations within these arrangements based on their relative standalone selling prices.
Advertising Revenues: Revenue from the sale of advertising earned by the Media Networks segment is recognized when the advertisement is aired. Advertising revenues are principally generated from the sale of advertising campaigns comprised of multiple commercial units. In contracts with guaranteed impressions, we have identified the overall advertising campaign as the performance obligation to be satisfied over time, and impressions delivered against the satisfaction of our guarantee as the measure of progress. To the extent amounts billed exceed the amount of revenue recognized by applying the measure of progress, such amounts are deferred until the impression guarantee has been satisfied. For arrangements that do not include impression guarantees, the individual spots are the performance obligation, and consideration is allocated among the individual advertising spots based on relative standalone selling prices.
Affiliate Revenues: In the Media Networks segment, content is primarily distributed through its live network feeds via content license arrangements with affiliate partners, including cable television operators, direct-to-home satellite operators and mobile networks.
We also license our content through television, subscription video-on-demand (“SVOD”) and over-the-top (“OTT”) distributors, syndication and transactional video-on-demand. As discussed further in the Filmed Entertainment Revenues section below, revenue associated with these arrangements is recognized upon a transfer of control, which occurs upon delivery and availability for airing by the licensee.

6

Table of Contents
VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

Affiliate revenues from cable television operators, direct-to-home satellite television operators and mobile networks are recognized by the Media Networks segment as the live feeds are provided to the distributor, representing a transfer of control. The performance obligation under such affiliate agreements is a license to our content via the continuous delivery of live linear feeds, and may also include a license to programming for video-on-demand (“VOD”) viewing. Both performance obligations are satisfied over the term of the agreement. The majority of our affiliate revenues relate to sales-based royalties for which we receive a contractual rate per subscriber. Revenue for these contracts is recognized when the sale to the end customer occurs, which is generally concurrent with the delivery of the linear feeds based on the number of subscribers the customer has at the time of delivery.
Consumer Products, Recreation and Live Events Revenues: Revenue associated with consumer products, recreation and live event contracts is typically recognized utilizing contractual royalty rates applied to sales amounts reported by licensees. When consumer products and recreation agreements include minimum guaranteed consideration, revenue is recognized as sales occur by the licensee or ratably if the sales-based consideration is not expected to exceed a minimum guaranteed amount of consideration. For live events, we recognize revenue when the event is held.
Filmed Entertainment Revenues: In the Filmed Entertainment segment, we license our content through theatrical releases, television, SVOD and OTT distributors, and through transactional video-on-demand. We also distribute our films through DVD and Blu-ray sales through wholesale and retail partners.
Revenue from the licensing of film and television exhibition rights, including broadcast and cable television networks, SVOD and other OTT services, is recognized upon a transfer of control, which occurs upon delivery and availability for airing by the licensee. Each individual title delivered represents a separate performance obligation. For renewals or extensions of licensing arrangements, revenue related to the renewal or extension is recognized upon the start of the renewal or extension period to the extent the content has been delivered to the customer. SVOD and other OTT arrangements include content made available to distributors on one or more dates for a fixed fee. Consideration for such arrangements is allocated among the titles and episodes based on relative standalone selling prices. Estimation of standalone selling prices requires judgment, which can impact the timing and amount of revenue that we recognize.
In determining the transaction price of a contract, an adjustment is made if payment from our customer occurs either significantly before or after performance, resulting in a significant financing component. Applying a practical expedient in the new standard, we do not assess whether a significant financing component exists if the period between when we perform our obligations under the contract and when the customer pays is one year or less.
In transactional video-on-demand and similar arrangements, our performance obligation is to provide the content to our distribution customers that provide our content to end users. These contracts provide for sales-based royalties based on the number of underlying transactions with end users. Revenue for transactional video-on-demand and similar arrangements is recognized as the content is exhibited based on end-customer purchases as reported by distributors. Similarly, revenue from licensing of our content through electronic sell-through means is recognized as each title is downloaded by the end customer, as the customer is able to use the license immediately upon download. For sales of DVDs and Blu-ray discs to wholesalers and retailers, revenue is recognized upon the later of physical delivery to the customer or the date that restrictions on sales by the retailers are lifted.
Theatrical revenue is recognized from theatrical distribution of films during the exhibition period. These agreements take the form of sales-based royalties and revenue is recognized when the sale to the end customer occurs.
Revenue Allowances: We record a provision for sales returns and allowances at the time of sale based upon an estimate of future returns, rebates and other incentives (“estimated returns”). In determining estimated returns, we consider numerous sources of qualitative and quantitative evidence including forecasted sales data, customers’ rights of return, units shipped and units remaining at retail, historical return rates for similar product, current economic trends, competitive environment, promotions and sales strategies. Reserves for sales returns and allowances are recorded as a liability in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Reserves for accounts receivable are based on amounts estimated to be uncollectible and are recorded as a contra-receivable.
Gross versus Net Revenue: We earn and recognize revenues under certain third-party distribution and outsourced advertising sales agreements. In such cases, determining whether revenue should be reported on a gross or net basis is based on management’s assessment of which party controls the good or service being transferred to the customer.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Revenue Recognition
On October 1, 2018, we adopted ASC Topic 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers, a comprehensive revenue recognition model that supersedes the previous revenue recognition requirements. The guidance provides a five step framework to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration it

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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard impacts the timing of revenue recognition for renewals and extensions of existing licensing agreements for intellectual property, which are now recognized as revenue when the renewal term begins rather than when the agreement is extended or renewed under previous guidance. We adopted the standard using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption, which resulted in a cumulative effect adjustment of $106 million to decrease the opening retained earnings balance for our 2019 fiscal year, substantially all related to television license arrangements in our Filmed Entertainment segment.
The following tables present the amount each applicable financial statement line item on our Consolidated Statement of Earnings and Consolidated Balance Sheet would have increased/(decreased) if renewals and extensions of existing licensing agreements for intellectual property were recognized under previous accounting guidance:
Consolidated Statement of Earnings Impact
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31, 2019
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31, 2019
Revenues
$
(36
)
 
$
(47
)
Operating expenses
(13
)
 
(17
)
Operating income
(23
)
 
(30
)
Provision for income taxes
(6
)
 
(8
)
Net earnings from continuing operations
$
(17
)
 
$
(22
)
Net earnings (Viacom and noncontrolling interests)
$
(17
)
 
$
(22
)
Net earnings attributable to Viacom
$
(17
)
 
$
(22
)
Basic EPS from continuing operations
$
(0.04
)
 
$
(0.05
)
Diluted EPS from continuing operations
$
(0.04
)
 
$
(0.05
)
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Impact
(in millions)
March 31, 2019
ASSETS
 
Receivables, net
$
2

Inventory, net
(14
)
Prepaid and other assets
(2
)
Other assets
102

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
 
Accrued expenses
$
9

Participants’ share and residuals (current)
28

Other liabilities (current)
(60
)
Deferred revenue
(3
)
Participants’ share and residuals (noncurrent)
49

Other liabilities (noncurrent)
(19
)
Retained earnings
84

 
 
In addition, the adoption of ASC 606 resulted in a classification change on the Consolidated Balance Sheet in which reserves related to sales returns and allowances were reclassified to Other Liabilities - current. Such amount, which was $60 million as of March 31, 2019, was previously presented as a reduction to Receivables, net.
Income Taxes
On October 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-16 - Income Taxes: Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory. ASU 2016-16 requires the tax effects of intercompany transactions, other than sales of inventory, to be recognized currently, eliminating an exception under the previous GAAP in which the tax effects of intra-entity asset transfers were deferred until the transferred asset was sold to a third party or otherwise recovered through use. Under the modified retrospective method, we recorded a net cumulative adjustment of $165 million to increase the opening retained earnings balance for our 2019 fiscal year, principally related to deferred tax assets that will be amortized over the next 12 to 15 years.
Financial Instruments
On October 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-01 - Financial Instruments - Overall: Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of certain financial instruments. Among other provisions, the new guidance requires the fair value measurement of equity

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

investments. For equity investments without readily determinable fair values, entities have the option to either measure these investments at fair value or to apply a measurement alternative at cost adjusted for changes in observable prices minus impairment. All changes in measurement are recognized in net income. We adopted the standard for our marketable securities using the modified retrospective method, which resulted in a transition adjustment to reclassify $54 million, net of tax, of accumulated other comprehensive income related to our marketable securities to increase the opening retained earnings balance. For our investments without readily determinable fair values, or non-marketable securities, we have adopted the standard prospectively and elected to apply the measurement alternative described above. Gains and losses resulting from the movements in fair value of equity investments are recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings.
Statement of Cash Flows
On October 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-15 - Statement of Cash Flows: Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which addresses how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The new standard impacts our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows by increasing cash flow from operating activities and decreasing cash flow from financing activities in periods when debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs are paid. We adopted the standard retrospectively.
Pension Benefits
On October 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2017-07 - Compensation - Retirement Benefits: Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost, which requires the service cost component of net periodic cost to be presented in the income statement with other current compensation costs for related employees. The other components of net periodic cost are required to be presented in the income statement outside of operating income. We adopted the standard retrospectively, which resulted in $1 million of other components of net periodic costs in the six months ended March 31, 2018 to be reclassified from Selling, general and administrative to Other items, net in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings. As a practical expedient, we used amounts previously disclosed in the prior comparative period’s interim consolidated financial statements as the adjustments that were applied retrospectively.
Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Improvements to Accounting for Costs of Films and License Agreements for Program Materials
In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-02 - Entertainment - Films - Other Assets - Film Costs and Entertainment - Broadcasters - Intangibles - Goodwill and Other. ASU 2019-02 aligns the accounting for production costs of an episodic television series with the accounting for production costs of films by removing the content distinction for capitalization. The guidance also requires that an entity test a film or license agreement for program material for impairment at a film group level when the film or license agreement is predominantly monetized with other films and/or license agreements. Further, the guidance requires that an entity reassess estimates of the use of a film in a film group and account for changes, if any, prospectively. The guidance will be effective for the first interim period of our 2021 fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the new standard on our consolidated financial statements.
Derivatives and Hedging
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12 - Derivatives and Hedging: Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. Among other provisions, ASU 2017-12 expands the eligibility of hedging strategies that qualify for hedge accounting, changes the assessment of hedge effectiveness and modifies the presentation and disclosure of hedging activities. The guidance will be effective for the first interim period of our 2020 fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the new standard on our consolidated financial statements.
Financial Instruments
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 - Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. Subsequently, ASU 2018-19 has been issued that amends and/or clarifies the application of ASU 2016-13. Among other provisions, the ASU introduces a new impairment model for most financial assets and certain other instruments. For trade and other receivables, held-to-maturity debt securities, loans and other instruments, entities will be required to use a forward-looking “expected loss” model that will replace the current “incurred loss” model and generally will result in earlier recognition of allowances for losses. The guidance will be effective for the first interim period of our 2021 fiscal year, with early adoption in fiscal year 2020 permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the new standard.
Leases
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 - Leases. Subsequent ASUs have also been issued that amend and/or clarify the application of ASU 2016-02. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for most leases. For income statement purposes, leases will be classified as either operating or finance, generally resulting in straight-line expense recognition for operating leases (similar to current operating leases) and accelerated expense recognition for financing leases (similar to current capital leases). The guidance will be effective for the first interim period of

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

our 2020 fiscal year, with early adoption permitted. The guidance provides an option to either (1) adopt retrospectively and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment at the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements or (2) recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment at the beginning of the period of adoption. We are evaluating the adoption methodology and the impact of the new guidance on our consolidated financial statements.
NOTE 2. ACQUISITION
Pluto TV
On March 1, 2019, we acquired Pluto Inc., the provider of the free streaming television service Pluto TV in the U.S., for $323 million, net of cash acquired. The purchase price excludes $18 million of post-combination expenses that are subject to continuous employment and will be recognized over the required service period in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings within Selling, general and administrative expenses. Pluto TV will advance our key strategic priorities, including expanding our presence across next-generation distribution platforms and accelerating growth in our advanced marketing solutions business.
The following table summarizes our allocation of the purchase price as of the acquisition date. Due to the timing of the acquisition, these amounts are provisional and subject to change. We will finalize these amounts as we obtain the information necessary to complete the measurement process. Any changes resulting from facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date may result in adjustments to the provisional amounts recognized at the acquisition date.
 
 
 
 
 
Purchase Price Allocation
(in millions)
 
 
   Receivables, net
 
$
32

 
   Prepaid and other assets
 
3

 
   Goodwill
 
275

 
   Intangible assets
 
41

 
   Other assets, noncurrent
 
8

 
Assets acquired
 
359

 
   Accounts payable
 
27

 
   Accrued expenses
 
4

 
   Other liabilities, noncurrent
 
5

 
Liabilities assumed
 
36

 
 
 
$
323

 
 
 
 
The goodwill, which is not deductible for tax purposes, reflects the expected Company-specific synergies arising from the acquisition and is included in the Media Networks segment. Intangible assets consist of distribution relationships, developed technology and trade names with useful lives of 5 years.
The operating results of Pluto TV from the date of acquisition through March 31, 2019 were not material.

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

NOTE 3. INVENTORY
Inventory
(in millions)
March 31,
2019
 
September 30,
2018
Film inventory:
 
 
 
Released, net of amortization
$
529

 
$
454

Completed, not yet released
55

 
11

In process and other
648

 
713

 
1,232

 
1,178

Television productions:
 
 
 
Released, net of amortization
30

 
6

In process and other
255

 
201

 
285

 
207

Original programming:
 
 
 
Released, net of amortization
1,103

 
1,124

In process and other
811

 
757

 
1,914

 
1,881

Acquired program rights, net of amortization
1,282

 
1,411

Home entertainment inventory
61

 
67

Total inventory, net
4,774

 
4,744

Less current portion
855

 
896

Noncurrent portion
$
3,919

 
$
3,848

 
 
 
 

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

NOTE 4. DEBT
Our total debt consists of the following:
Debt
(in millions)
March 31,
2019
 
September 30,
2018
Senior Notes and Debentures:
 
 
 
Senior notes due September 2019, 5.625%
$
220

 
$
550

Senior notes due December 2019, 2.750%
90

 
252

Senior notes due March 2021, 4.500%
498

 
497

Senior notes due December 2021, 3.875%
597

 
596

Senior notes due February 2022, 2.250%
49

 
102

Senior notes due June 2022, 3.125%
194

 
194

Senior notes due March 2023, 3.250%
181

 
181

Senior notes due September 2023, 4.250%
1,240

 
1,239

Senior notes due April 2024, 3.875%
489

 
488

Senior notes due October 2026, 3.450%
123

 
474

Senior debentures due December 2034, 4.850%
86

 
281

Senior debentures due April 2036, 6.875%
1,068

 
1,068

Senior debentures due October 2037, 6.750%
75

 
75

Senior debentures due February 2042, 4.500%
45

 
62

Senior debentures due March 2043, 4.375%
1,105

 
1,102

Senior debentures due June 2043, 4.875%
18

 
32

Senior debentures due September 2043, 5.850%
1,230

 
1,230

Senior debentures due April 2044, 5.250%
345

 
345

Junior Debentures:
 
 
 
Junior subordinated debentures due February 2057, 5.875%
642

 
642

Junior subordinated debentures due February 2057, 6.250%
642

 
642

Capital lease and other obligations
22

 
30

Total debt
8,959

 
10,082

Less current portion
322

 
567

Noncurrent portion
$
8,637

 
$
9,515

 
 
 
 
In the six months ended March 31, 2019, we redeemed $1.128 billion of senior notes and debentures for a redemption price of $1.100 billion. As a result, we recognized a pre-tax extinguishment gain of $18 million, net of $10 million of unamortized debt costs and transaction fees.
Our 5.875% Junior subordinated debentures due February 2057 and 6.250% Junior subordinated debentures due February 2057 accrue interest at the stated fixed rates until February 28, 2022 and February 28, 2027, respectively, on which dates the rates will switch to floating rates based on three-month LIBOR plus 3.895% and 3.899%, respectively, reset quarterly. These debentures can be called by us at any time after the expiration of the fixed-rate period.
The total unamortized discount and issuance fees and expenses related to our notes and debentures outstanding was $417 million and $431 million as of March 31, 2019 and September 30, 2018, respectively.
Credit Facility
In February 2019, we amended our revolving credit agreement, originally dated as of October 8, 2010, to, among other things, extend the maturity date of the $2.5 billion revolving credit facility from November 18, 2019 to February 11, 2024. The credit facility is used for general corporate purposes and to support commercial paper outstanding, if any. The borrowing rate under the amended credit facility is LIBOR plus a margin ranging from 1% to 1.625% based on our current public debt rating. The credit facility has one principal financial covenant that requires our total consolidated leverage to be less than 4.50x (which we may elect to increase to 5.0x for up to four consecutive quarters following a qualifying acquisition) as of the last day of each fiscal quarter. We met this covenant as of March 31, 2019. Total consolidated leverage is the ratio of our consolidated indebtedness as of the last day of each quarter to the consolidated EBITDA (each as defined in the amended credit agreement) for the trailing twelve-month period. As of March 31, 2019, there were no amounts outstanding under the credit facility.

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

NOTE 5. PENSION BENEFITS
The components of net periodic benefit cost for our defined benefit pension plans, which are currently frozen to future benefit accruals, are set forth below. Net periodic benefit cost, other than service cost, if any, is presented in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings within Other items, net.
Net Periodic Benefit Cost
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Interest cost
$
9

 
$
8

 
$
19

 
$
17

Expected return on plan assets
(10
)
 
(10
)
 
(20
)
 
(20
)
Recognized actuarial loss
2

 
2

 
3

 
4

Net periodic benefit cost
$
1

 
$

 
$
2

 
$
1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NOTE 6. REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTEREST
We are subject to a redeemable put option, payable in a foreign currency, with respect to an international subsidiary. The put option expires in December 2022 and is classified as Redeemable noncontrolling interest in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The activity reflected within redeemable noncontrolling interest is as follows:
Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
(in millions)
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
Beginning balance
$
246

 
$
248

Net earnings
8

 
11

Distributions
(11
)
 
(10
)
Translation adjustment
1

 
12

Redemption value adjustment
9

 
3

Ending Balance
$
253

 
$
264

 
 
 
 
NOTE 7. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Commitments
As more fully described in Note 11 of the 2018 Form 10-K, our commitments primarily consist of programming and talent commitments, operating and capital lease arrangements, and purchase obligations for goods and services. These arrangements result from our normal course of business and represent obligations that may be payable over several years.
Contingencies
We have certain indemnification obligations with respect to leases primarily associated with the previously discontinued operations of Famous Players Inc. (“Famous Players”). In addition, we have certain indemnities provided by the acquirer of Famous Players. These lease commitments amounted to approximately $120 million and are recorded as a liability as of March 31, 2019. The amount of lease commitments varies over time depending on expiration or termination of individual underlying leases, or of the related indemnification obligation, and foreign exchange rates, among other things. We may also have exposure for certain other expenses related to the leases, such as property taxes and common area maintenance. We believe our accrual is sufficient to meet any future obligations based on our consideration of available financial information, the lessees’ historical performance in meeting their lease obligations and the underlying economic factors impacting the lessees’ business models.
NOTE 8. REVENUES
Contract Balances
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in receivables and contract liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

Current receivables were $3.088 billion and $3.117 billion as of March 31, 2019 and October 1, 2018, respectively. Noncurrent receivables are principally related to long-term television license arrangements at Filmed Entertainment and SVOD and other OTT arrangements at Media Networks. Noncurrent receivables, included within Other assets - noncurrent in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, were $317 million and $380 million as of March 31, 2019 and October 1, 2018, respectively. Such amounts are due in accordance with the underlying terms of the respective agreements. We have determined that credit loss allowances are generally not considered necessary for these amounts.
When consideration is received from a customer prior to satisfying, or partially satisfying, a performance obligation under the terms of a contract, a contract liability is recorded. Contract liabilities are recognized as revenue when control of the products or services is transferred to the customer. Our contract liabilities primarily relate to advertising sales arrangements where revenues have been deferred due to impression guarantees, consumer products arrangements with minimum guarantees and advance payments under content licensing arrangements. Contract liabilities are primarily short term and shown as Deferred revenue in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Current deferred revenue was $464 million and $402 million as of March 31, 2019 and October 1, 2018, respectively. Noncurrent deferred revenue, included within Other liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, was $60 million and $67 million as of March 31, 2019 and October 1, 2018, respectively. Revenue recognized in the six months ended March 31, 2019 relating to contract liabilities as of September 30, 2018 was $216 million.
Performance Obligations Satisfied in Previous Periods
Under certain contracts we provide licenses to functional intellectual property that is recognized based on sales to the end customer. These types of contracts can result in recognition of revenue in a period subsequent to the period in which our performance obligation is satisfied, and are primarily entered into by our Filmed Entertainment reporting segment. We recognized approximately $123 million of revenue during the quarter ended March 31, 2019 from performance obligations satisfied, or partially satisfied, prior to December 31, 2018. We recognized approximately $101 million of revenue during the six months ended March 31, 2019 from performance obligations satisfied, or partially satisfied, prior to September 30, 2018. These revenues were primarily related to the distribution of film and television content through transactional electronic sell-through and VOD.
Future Performance Obligations
As of March 31, 2019, unrecognized revenues attributable to performance obligations not yet satisfied under various long-term contracts were approximately $3.4 billion. This revenue is generally expected to be recognized over a period of up to 10 years, but the majority will be recognized over the next three years. Our most significant remaining performance obligations relate to film and television content licensing arrangements, as well as affiliate and other arrangements that contain minimum guarantees. The amount disclosed does not include: (i) revenues related to performance obligations that are part of a contract that have an original expected duration of one year or less and (ii) content license contracts for which variable consideration is determined based on the customer's subsequent sale or usage.
NOTE 9. RESTRUCTURING, RELATED COSTS AND PROGRAMMING CHARGES
During fiscal 2018, we launched a program of cost transformation initiatives to improve our margins. We recognized pre-tax charges of $24 million and $172 million in the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2019, respectively, associated with continuing initiatives primarily related to recent management changes and reorganization at Media Networks, comprised of $24 million and $95 million of restructuring and related costs in the quarter and six months, respectively, and $77 million of programming charges in the six months. The charges, as detailed in the table below, included severance charges, exit costs principally resulting from vacating certain leased properties, related costs comprised of third-party professional services and programming charges. The programming charges resulted from decisions by management newly in place, as part of our 2018 restructuring activities, to cease the use of certain programming, and are included within Operating expenses in the Consolidated Statement of Earnings.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Restructuring, Related Costs
and Programming Charges
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31, 2019
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31, 2019
Media Networks
 
Filmed Entertainment
 
Corporate
 
Total
 
Media Networks
 
Filmed Entertainment
 
Corporate
 
Total
Severance (1)
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$
23

 
$
14

 
$
4

 
$
41

Exit costs
24

 

 

 
24

 
51

 

 

 
51

Other related costs

 

 

 

 

 

 
3

 
3

Restructuring and related costs
24

 

 

 
24

 
74

 
14

 
7

 
95

Programming

 

 

 

 
74

 
3

 

 
77

Total
$
24

 
$

 
$

 
$
24

 
$
148

 
$
17

 
$
7

 
$
172

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Restructuring and Related Costs
(in millions)
Quarter and Six Months Ended 
 March 31, 2018
Media Networks
 
Filmed Entertainment
 
Corporate
 
Total
Severance (1)
$
123

 
$

 
$

 
$
123

Exit costs
40

 

 

 
40

Other related costs

 

 
22

 
22

Total
$
163

 
$

 
$
22

 
$
185

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) Includes equity-based compensation expense of $1 million in the six months ended March 31, 2019 and $6 million in the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2018.
Our severance liability by reportable segment is as follows:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Severance Liability
(in millions)
Media Networks
 
Filmed Entertainment
 
Corporate
 
Total
September 30, 2018
$
149

 
$
23

 
$
23

 
$
195

Accruals
23

 
14

 
4

 
41

Severance payments
(56
)
 
(17
)
 
(15
)
 
(88
)
March 31, 2019
$
116

 
$
20

 
$
12

 
$
148

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
As of March 31, 2019, of the remaining $148 million liability, $111 million was classified within Other liabilitiescurrent in the Consolidated Balance Sheets, with the remaining $37 million classified within Other liabilitiesnoncurrent. We expect to complete these restructuring actions in fiscal 2019. Amounts classified as noncurrent are expected to be substantially paid through 2021, in accordance with applicable contractual terms. In addition, we made payments related to exit costs of $12 million in the six months ended March 31, 2019.
NOTE 10. INCOME TAXES
As of December 31, 2018, all relevant provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”), enacted on December 22, 2017, became applicable to us. Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, provided a measurement period of one year from the date of enactment for which provisional amounts could be recorded. As of one year from enactment, we completed our analysis with regard to the Act and therefore do not have any remaining provisional amounts recorded in the Consolidated Balance Sheet. As guidance regarding the Act continues to be forthcoming, the application of such guidance may result in additional charges to our income tax provision. We have also elected to account for the effects of global intangible low tax income as a component of income tax expense in the period the tax arises.
Our effective income tax rate was 24.6% and 24.8% in the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2019, respectively. A net discrete tax benefit on the restructuring and related costs, programming charges, legal settlement and the gains and losses on marketable securities, increased the effective income tax rate by 0.1 and 0.3 percentage points in the quarter and six months, respectively.
Our effective income tax rate was 8.0% and 7.4% in the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2018, respectively. A net discrete tax benefit of $46 million in the quarter and $149 million in the six months, taken together with the discrete tax impact of the restructuring and related costs, investment impairment and gain on debt extinguishment, reduced the effective income tax rate by 16.5 and 17.1 percentage points in the quarter and six months, respectively. The net discrete tax benefit in the quarter was principally related to the measurement of the deferred tax balances from the retroactive reenactment of legislation allowing for accelerated tax deductions on certain qualified film and television productions, partially offset by a refinement of the transition tax on the deemed repatriation of indefinitely reinvested earnings of our international subsidiaries. The net discrete tax benefit in the six months was principally related to tax reform.

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VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

NOTE 11. EARNINGS PER SHARE
Basic earnings per common share is computed by dividing Net earnings attributable to Viacom by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The determination of diluted earnings per common share includes the weighted average number of common shares plus the dilutive effect of equity awards based upon the application of the treasury stock method. Anti-dilutive common shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted earnings per common share.
The following table sets forth the weighted average number of common shares outstanding used in determining basic and diluted earnings per common share and anti-dilutive common shares:
Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding and
Anti-dilutive Common Shares
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding, basic
403.3

 
402.6

 
403.2

 
402.5

        Dilutive effect of equity awards
0.4

 
0.3

 
0.4

 
0.2

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding, diluted
403.7

 
402.9

 
403.6

 
402.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anti-dilutive common shares
20.2

 
19.6

 
20.0

 
19.3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NOTE 12. SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW AND OTHER INFORMATION
Our supplemental cash flow information is as follows:
Supplemental Cash Flow Information
(in millions)
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019

2018
Cash paid for interest
$
266

 
$
300

Cash paid for income taxes
$
199

 
$
100

Equity Awards
During the six months ended March 31, 2019, we granted 2.9 million stock options and 2.1 million performance and restricted share units to employees with a weighted average grant date fair value of $7.31 and $31.09 per share, respectively. During the six months ended March 31, 2018, we granted 2.4 million stock options and 1.5 million performance and restricted share units to employees with a weighted average grant date fair value of $8.83 and $32.43 per share, respectively.

Investments
During the quarter ended March 31, 2018, we recognized an impairment loss of $46 million to write off certain cost method investments. We also completed the sale of a 1% equity interest in Viacom18 to our joint venture partner for $20 million, resulting in a gain of $16 million. The impairment charge and gain on asset sale are included in Other items, net in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings.
Variable Interest Entities
In the normal course of business, we enter into joint ventures or make investments with business partners that support our underlying business strategy and provide us the ability to enter new markets to expand the reach of our brands, develop new programming and/or distribute our existing content. In certain instances, an entity in which we make an investment may qualify as a variable interest entity (“VIE”). In determining whether we are the primary beneficiary of a VIE, we assess whether we have the power to direct matters that most significantly impact the activities of the VIE and have the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Our Consolidated Balance Sheets include amounts related to consolidated VIEs totaling $52 million in assets and $3 million in liabilities as of March 31, 2019, and $72 million in assets and $5 million in liabilities as of September 30, 2018. The consolidated VIEs’ revenues, expenses and operating income were not significant for all periods presented.
Legal Settlement
During the quarter ended March 31, 2019, a commercial dispute arose and was settled for $40 million.

16

Table of Contents
VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

NOTE 13. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
The fair value of our marketable securities was $72 million and $80 million as of March 31, 2019 and September 30, 2018, respectively, which is included within Other assets, noncurrent on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, as determined utilizing a market approach based on quoted market prices in active markets at period end (Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy). The carrying value of non-marketable equity investments was $138 million as of March 31, 2019.
The fair value of our notes and debentures outstanding was approximately $9.6 billion and $10.5 billion as of March 31, 2019 and September 30, 2018, respectively. The valuation of our publicly traded debt is based on quoted prices in active markets (Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy).
The fair value of our foreign exchange contracts was a liability of $8 million as of March 31, 2019 and September 30, 2018, as determined utilizing a market-based approach (Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy).
The notional value of all foreign exchange contracts was $600 million and $642 million as of March 31, 2019 and September 30, 2018, respectively. As of March 31, 2019, $392 million related to future production costs and $208 million related to our foreign currency balances. As of September 30, 2018, $345 million related to future production costs and $297 million related to our foreign currency balances.
NOTE 14. REPORTABLE SEGMENTS
The following tables set forth our financial performance by reportable segment. Our reportable segments have been determined in accordance with our internal management structure. We manage our operations through two reportable segments: (i) Media Networks and (ii) Filmed Entertainment. Typical intersegment transactions include the purchase of advertising by the Filmed Entertainment segment on Media Networks’ properties and the licensing of Filmed Entertainment’s feature film and television content by Media Networks. The elimination of such intercompany transactions in our consolidated financial statements is included within eliminations in the tables below.
 
Our measure of segment performance is adjusted operating income. Adjusted operating income is defined as operating income, before equity-based compensation and certain other items identified as affecting comparability, when applicable.
Revenues by Segment
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Media Networks
$
2,267

 
$
2,429

 
$
4,765

 
$
4,989

Filmed Entertainment
730

 
741

 
1,351

 
1,285

Eliminations
(39
)
 
(22
)
 
(68
)
 
(53
)
Total revenues
$
2,958

 
$
3,148

 
$
6,048

 
$
6,221

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

17

Table of Contents
VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

Adjusted Operating Income/(Loss)
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Media Networks
$
682

 
$
706

 
$
1,595

 
$
1,620

Filmed Entertainment
29

 
9

 
(61
)
 
(121
)
Corporate expenses
(57
)
 
(60
)
 
(117
)
 
(115
)
Eliminations

 
1

 
(4
)
 
4

Equity-based compensation
(17
)
 
(15
)
 
(26
)
 
(29
)
Restructuring, related costs and programming charges (1)
(24
)
 
(185
)
 
(172
)
 
(185
)
Legal settlement
(40
)
 

 
(40
)
 

Operating income
573

 
456

 
1,175

 
1,174

Interest expense, net
(118
)
 
(143
)
 
(245
)
 
(290
)
Equity in net earnings of investee companies

 
2

 
1

 
3

Gain/(loss) on marketable securities
38

 

 
(8
)
 

Gain on extinguishment of debt

 

 
18

 
25

Other items, net
(5
)
 
(28
)
 
(12
)
 
(32
)
Earnings from continuing operations before provision for income taxes
$
488

 
$
287

 
$
929

 
$
880

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) Includes equity-based compensation expense of $1 million in the six months ended March 31, 2019 and $6 million in the quarter and six months ended March 31, 2018.

Total Assets
(in millions)
March 31,
2019
 
September 30,
2018
 
Media Networks
$
17,666

 
$
17,576

Filmed Entertainment
5,348

 
5,297

Corporate/Eliminations
79

 
910

Total assets
$
23,093

 
$
23,783

 
 
 
 

During the first quarter of fiscal 2019, we changed our presentation of revenues by component to better align the revenue classification to the inherent nature of the underlying revenue transactions. Amounts previously reported as ancillary revenues in Media Networks were renamed to consumer products, recreation and live events. Further, certain components of Media Networks revenue, including syndication and download-to-own revenues, previously reported within ancillary revenues were reclassified to affiliate revenues. Amounts previously reported as feature film revenues in Filmed Entertainment were disaggregated among (i) theatrical, (ii) home entertainment and (iii) licensing. Prior period amounts have been recast to conform to the current presentation.
Revenues by Component
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Media Networks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Advertising
$
1,033

 
$
1,105

 
$
2,263

 
$
2,413

Affiliate
1,139

 
1,208

 
2,308

 
2,347

Consumer products, recreation and live events
95

 
116

 
194

 
229

Filmed Entertainment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Theatrical
172

 
50

 
321

 
150

Home entertainment
154

 
163

 
332

 
346

Licensing
315

 
477

 
535

 
690

Ancillary
89

 
51

 
163

 
99

Eliminations
(39
)
 
(22
)
 
(68
)
 
(53
)
Total revenues
$
2,958

 
$
3,148

 
$
6,048

 
$
6,221

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

18

Table of Contents
VIACOM INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(continued)

NOTE 15. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
National Amusements, Inc. (“National Amusements”), directly and indirectly, is the controlling stockholder of both Viacom and CBS Corporation (“CBS”). National Amusements owns shares in Viacom representing approximately 79.8% of the voting interest in Viacom and approximately 9.9% of Viacom’s combined common stock. National Amusements is controlled by Sumner M. Redstone, our Chairman Emeritus, who is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of National Amusements, through the Sumner M. Redstone National Amusements Trust (the “SMR Trust”), which owns shares in National Amusements representing 80% of the voting interest of National Amusements. The shares representing the other 20% of the voting interest of National Amusements are held through a trust controlled by Shari E. Redstone, who is Mr. Redstone’s daughter, the non-executive Vice Chair of Viacom’s Board of Directors, the non-executive Vice Chair of CBS’s board of directors, and the President and a member of the Board of Directors of National Amusements. The shares of National Amusements held by the SMR Trust are voted solely by Mr. Redstone until such time as his incapacity or death. Upon Mr. Redstone’s incapacity or death, Ms. Redstone will also become a trustee of the SMR Trust and the shares of National Amusements held by the SMR Trust will be voted by the trustees of the SMR Trust. The current trustees include Mr. Redstone, who is also a member of the Board of Directors of National Amusements and serves as Chairman Emeritus of CBS.
Transactions between Viacom and related parties are overseen by our Governance and Nominating Committee.
Viacom and National Amusements Related Party Transactions
National Amusements licenses films in the ordinary course of business for its movie theaters from all major studios, including Paramount. During the six months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, Paramount earned revenues from National Amusements in connection with these licenses in the aggregate amount of approximately $3 million and $2 million, respectively.
Viacom and CBS Corporation Related Party Transactions
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in transactions with CBS and its various businesses that result in the recognition of revenues and expenses by us. Transactions with CBS are settled in cash.
Our Filmed Entertainment segment earns revenues and recognizes expenses associated with its distribution of certain television products into the home entertainment market on behalf of CBS. Pursuant to its agreement with CBS, Paramount distributes CBS’s library of television and other content on DVD and Blu-ray disc on a worldwide basis. Under the terms of the agreement, Paramount is entitled to retain a fee based on a percentage of gross receipts and is generally responsible for all out-of-pocket costs, which are recoupable prior to any participation amounts paid. Paramount also earns revenues from CBS through leasing of studio space and licensing of certain film products.
Our Media Networks segment recognizes advertising revenues and licenses television programming from CBS. The cost of the programming purchases is initially recorded as acquired program rights inventory and amortized over the estimated period that revenues will be generated.
Both of our segments recognize advertising expenses related to the placement of advertisements with CBS.
The following table summarizes the transactions with CBS as included in our consolidated financial statements:
CBS Related Party Transactions
(in millions)
Quarter Ended 
 March 31,
 
Six Months Ended 
 March 31,
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Consolidated Statements of Earnings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
16

 
$
25

 
$
51

 
$
69

Operating expenses
$
26

 
$
33

 
$
62

 
$
85

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
March 31,
2019
 
September 30,
2018
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
 
 
 
 
$
10

 
$
7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Participants’ share and residuals, current
 
 
 
 
$
60

 
$
58

Program obligations, current
 
 
 
 
33

 
38